Large urban areas in Vietnam are generally experiencing rapid urbanization, but due to difficult economic conditions, investment in technical infrastructure of urban infrastructure is still limited. The lack of technical infrastructure for wastewater treatment, many treatment systems with inappropriate technology have led to the situation that untreated urban wastewater is discharged directly into the environment, threatening the environment and becoming into a great challenge for cities.
Only 13% of wastewater is treated
According to the Ministry of Construction, currently there are only 43 urban wastewater treatment plants in the country, which have been put into operation with a total designed capacity of over 926,000m3 / day and night, the percentage of wastewater collected and treated only reached 13%. Investing in the technical infrastructure management system of urban wastewater in Vietnam is currently facing many challenges, requiring the drainage industry to take appropriate directions. And in that, technological innovation, improvement of management solutions are the key points to gradually treat wastewater, prevent flooding, bring high and sustainable economic efficiency.
Treatment of urban wastewater is also a painful issue of Ho Chi Minh City. Ms. Nguyen Thi Thanh My, Deputy Director of Ho Chi Minh City Department of Natural Resources and Environment, said the estimated amount of wastewater from urban activities generated about 1.6 million m3 / day and night. Currently, the city is operating 3 concentrated urban wastewater treatment plants with a total capacity of 302,000m3 / day and night, including Binh Hung factory phase 1, Binh Hung Hoa and Tham Luong – Ben Cat.
If the amount of wastewater treated locally in new residential areas, apartment buildings, industry, trade and services (excluding waste water from industrial parks) is counted, the total amount of wastewater collected and treated by the whole city The city is 370,624m3 / day and night (accounting for about 22%).
Treatment lake of Binh Hung Hoa domestic wastewater treatment plant. Photo: CAO THANG
This fact also clearly shows that the treatment does not meet the city’s wastewater needs. Therefore, Ho Chi Minh City continues to mobilize all resources to implement concentrated urban wastewater treatment plant projects. It is forecasted that if by the end of 2020 the city will complete 3 wastewater treatment plants (Binh Hung phase 2, Nhieu Loc – Thi Nghe, Tham Luong – Ben Cat phase 2), the amount of wastewater collected and treated will be improved. to more than 1.3 million m3 / day and night.
The World Bank representative acknowledged that, although 60% of Vietnamese households connect wastewater to public drainage systems, most of the wastewater is discharged directly to surface drainage systems. , only 10% of the wastewater is treated. In the coming years, Vietnam has a very high demand for investment capital in this field, expected to need 8.3 billion USD to provide drainage services for about 36 million urban residents by 2025.
Talking about this content, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Hong Tien, Vice President and General Secretary of Vietnam Water Supply and Sewerage Association, said that big cities are now interested in investing in building the system. Drainage and waste water treatment. However, meeting the investment needs for building a collection network as well as constructing a wastewater treatment plant is still limited.
We are dependent on ODA loans, leading to a very slow pace of investment as well as the speed of construction of factories and collection systems. There is a big obstacle in attracting socialized capital for urban wastewater treatment, which is urgently needed by the state management agency to take measures to resolve it.
Currently, many businesses want to invest in this field, but due to low profits, less attractive, the procedure is still quite complicated, so only a few strong potential businesses, with technology background and professional human resources. , modern new boldly join.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nguyen Viet Anh, Director of the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (IESE), also said that investment and management of urban wastewater treatment infrastructure in Vietnam is currently facing very many challenges, from legal policies, capital, technology to the voluntary consciousness of the people.
However, if we have the right direction, this field will become an attractive market. The selection of drainage organization chart, wastewater collection and treatment technology, operation management, household connection model, ensuring compensation for operation and maintenance of drainage systems … are issues that need attention in urban wastewater treatment.
Depending on specific conditions, we can apply different models but the general purpose is still the effectiveness in urban wastewater treatment to minimize water pollution.